Legal Separation


Legal Separation in Oregon: The Basics

While the decision to divorce is clear-cut for some people, the complexity of emotional, financial and parenting needs associated with a marriage motivates some spouses to consider other, non-divorce options to restructure their marriage. These may include a trial physical separation (moving out), separating finances while continuing to cohabitate, and the most comprehensive legal alternative, legal separation. This article explains why people may choose a legal separation vs divorce.

The Similarities of Divorce and Legal Separation

Before looking at the differences, let’s consider the similarities between legal separation and divorce. Most notably, the steps you go through, the decisions you need to make, and the overall expense of legal separation in Oregon is practically the same as a divorce in Oregon. As with divorce, spouses going through a legal separation develop a legally binding settlement agreement regarding custody, child and spousal support, division of property, asset and debt distribution, and retirement accounts. The challenge and impacts of these decisions usually necessitate that the spouses obtain support from a divorce mediator or family law attorneys, and spouses have the same options as they would for how to get a divorce in Oregon.

Legal Separation vs Divorce

The reasons people may elect a legal separation over a divorce are related to the primary difference; you are still legally married. The main reasons are:

  • You are not 100% certain they want to end the marriage, or are not yet emotionally ready to call it quits, yet want to be independent in all other ways (financial, parenting, living, etc.). Thus, a legal separation operates as a “last stop” for couples who have not given up hope for saving the marriage.
  • You have religious, psychological, or moral objections to divorce, which may include worry or fear of shame about the concept of divorce from your family, church or community.
  • There is a financial benefit to remaining legally married in the form of tax status, continued health insurance, meet the 10-year requirement for social security benefits, or other financial marital benefits. Each of these benefits should be verified before deciding to obtain a legal separation.
  • You want to protect yourself from exposure to your spouse’s debts and liabilities. Obtain professional legal advice about this, as your protection may not extend to debts such as a mortgage on which you are named.
  • You want to file for divorce in Oregon, but don’t want to wait the required six months of prior residency; you can file for a legal separation instead, then turn it into a divorce after the six months of residency.

Legal Separation in Oregon

In Oregon, the difference between separation and divorce is that some of the terms of the separation are considered temporary, a working agreement until later modification. What may not be considered temporary, depending on the terms, are the core property, asset/debt and retirement distribution agreements.

In Oregon, you can easily convert your legal separation into a legal divorce (dissolution of marriage), thereby making all the terms of your legal separation final, within two years of the legal separation simply by filing a form (and incurring no additional fees.) If it has been more than two years since your legal separation and you want to alter your legal separation agreement or file for divorce, you will need to file anew with the court (and pay the filing fees).

Disadvantages of Legal Separation

If you have determined why you would get a legal separation instead of a divorce, it it important to consider some of the disadvantages of legal separation. Unless explicitly stated in your Oregon legal separation agreement, some of the terms of your settlement agreement, including parenting time, child support, child-related expenses, and spousal support may be renegotiated again, if and when you decide to divorce. Thus, it is essential that your divorce mediator or attorneys help you assess and write language into your legal separation agreement to clarify what matters will be revisited in a transition to a divorce.

And the Decision Is . . .

After learning that the process and costs for a legal separation in Oregon are the same as a divorce, and evaluating the actual financial benefits of remaining legally married, many of my clients over the years who were considering legal separation have ended up making the decision to get a divorce. In the words of one client who wrestled with this decision, “We can still work on our relationship, go on dates and go to counseling or even move back in together if we are no longer married.” By clarifying the similarities and differences of legal separation vs divorce, I hope you are better able to choose which path is right for you.

The information in this article should not be used as a substitute for professional legal advice, which can only be obtained from a Family Law Attorney.


Read “Should I Get a Divorce?”

Not ready for the legal route? Here are some best practices for a trial separation.